Worship of lord siva was there in India even before Christian era. Saiva saints of first century sang about this temple. The initial stracture of this temple was constructed by the great Pallava dynasty. Tamil Chola kings and the Vijayanagara kings also gave great help for the temple development. Like other great temples, the construction period of Srikalahasthi lasted centuries. Near about tenth century, the Chola kings renovated the temple and constructed the main structure. The outer walls and the four gopurams were constructed in the period of Sri Veera Narasimharayar in twelfth century. The 120 feet high main gopuram and the 100 pillar mandapam were constructed by Krishnadeva Raya, the great Vijayanagara king in 1516.
Nattukkotta Chettiyar of Devakkotta, developed the structure what we see today by spending on million dollar in 1912. This ancient temple dedicated to Lord Siva is one of the panchabhootha stalams (temples celebrating Lord Siva as the embodiment of the primary elements), air being the element in case here, the other five temples being Tiruvannamalai (fire), Chidambaram (space), Thiruvanikkaval (water) and Kanchipuram (earth) respectively.
Sri Kalahasthi is located near the pilgrimage town of Tirupathi and is visited by thousands of pilgrims. The temple is also associated with Rahu and Kethu (of the nine grahams or celestial bodies in the Indian astrological scheme). The river Suvarnamukhi takes the northerly course at Sri Kalahasthi almost washing the west wall of the famousSri Kalahasthi temple in the Chittor district of Andhra Pradesh. Inside this very large temple situated between two steep hills – Sripuram and Mummidi-cholapuram - is the Sivalinga set to represent the element of Vayu (air or wind), whose presence is evident by a continuous flame which flickers though there is no loophole for air to enter the temple.
for more info visit website http://www.hindustantemples.com/ Sri Kalahasthi Temple is in fact considered as the Kailash of the south or Dakshin Kailash. The protector of devotees, the granter of boons, the merciful Lord Siva, the Three-eyed, manifested in the form of Vayu linga in the Bilwaka grove on the banks of river Suvarnamukhi. Lord Siva, manifest in the form of Vayu linga, is known to the devotees as Sri Kalahastheeswara. The greatness of the temple at Sri Kalahasthi is mentioned in the Sivapuranam. There is legend associated with the manifestation of Lord Siva as Vayu linga at Sri Kalahasthi. According to it, Lord Brahama was asked by Lord Siva to create Kailash. As Brahma was struggling with the task, as piece fell on the earth in the south and came to be known as Dakshin Kailash and Lord Siva chose to manifest at Dakshin Kailash as Vayu linga representing wind, is one of the five elements of nature, to satisfy the desires and wishes of his devotees. Ever ready to provide succor to devotees in distress, Lord Siva manifested at Sri Kalahasthiyielding to the request by the three dumb creatures – the Spider, the Serpent and the Elephant.